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Session Details

Clustering 2

Wednesday, 12 December
10:00 – 12:00
Room: Salle des nations I
Session Chair: Katharina Morik

10:00 Scalable and Memory-efficient Clustering of Large Scale Social Networks short_paper) echo(" (Short)");?>
Joyce Jiyoung Whang, Xin Sui, and Inderjit S. Dhillon

Clustering of social networks is an important task for their analysis, however, most existing algorithms do not scale to the massive size of today's social networks. A popular class of graph clustering algorithms for large-scale networks, such as PMetis, KMetis and Graclus, is based on a multilevel framework. Generally, these multilevel algorithms work reasonably well on networks with a few million vertices. However, when the network size increases to the scale of 10 million vertices or greater, the performance of these algorithms rapidly degrades. Furthermore, an inherent property of social networks, the power law degree distribution, makes these algorithms infeasible to apply to large-scale social networks. In this paper, we propose a scalable and memory-efficient clustering algorithm for large-scale social networks. We name our algorithm GEM, by mixing two key concepts of the algorithm, Graph Extraction and weighted kernel k-Means. GEM efficiently extracts a good skeleton graph from the original graph, and propagates the clustering result of the extracted graph to the rest of the network. Experimental results show that GEM produces clusters of quality comparable to or better than existing state-of-the-art graph clustering algorithms, while it is much faster and consumes much less memory. Furthermore, the parallel implementation of GEM, called PGEM, not only produces higher quality of clusters but also achieves much better scalability than most current parallel graph clustering algorithms.

10:20 Clustering Time Series using Unsupervised-Shapelets short_paper) echo(" (Short)");?>
Jesin Zakaria, Abdullah Mueen, and Eamonn Keogh

Time series clustering has become an increasingly important research topic over the past decade. Most existing methods for time series clustering rely on distances calculated from the entire raw data using the Euclidean distance or Dynamic Time Warping distance as the distance measure. However, the presence of significant noise, dropouts, or extraneous data can greatly limit the accuracy of clustering in this domain. Moreover, for most real world problems, we cannot expect objects from the same class to be equal in length. As a consequence, most work on time series clustering only considers the clustering of individual time series "behaviors," e.g., individual heart beats or individual gait cycles, and contrives the time series in some way to make them all equal in length. However, contriving the data in such a way is often a harder problem than the clustering itself. In this work, we show that by using only some local patterns and deliberately ignoring the rest of the data, we can mitigate the above problems and cluster time series of different lengths, i.e., cluster one heartbeat with multiple heartbeats. To achieve this we exploit and extend a recently introduced concept in time series data mining called shapelets. Unlike existing work, our work demonstrates for the first time the unintuitive fact that shapelets can be learned from unlabeled time series. We show, with extensive empirical evaluation in diverse domains, that our method is more accurate than existing methods. Moreover, in addition to accurate clustering results, we show that our work also has the potential to give insights into the domains to which it is applied.

10:40 Dimensional Testing for Multi-Step Similarity Search short_paper) echo(" (Short)");?>
Michael E. Houle, Xiguo Ma, Michael Nett, and Vincent Oria

In data mining applications such as subspace clustering or feature selection, changes to the underlying feature set can require the reconstruction of search indices to support fundamental data mining tasks. For such situations, multi-step search approaches have been proposed that can accommodate changes in the underlying similarity measure without the need to rebuild the index. In this paper, we present a heuristic multi-step search algorithm that utilizes a measure of intrinsic dimension, the generalized expansion dimension (GED), as the basis of its search termination condition. Compared to the current state-of-the-art method, experimental results show that our heuristic approach is able to obtain significant improvements in both the number of candidates and the running time, while losing very little in the accuracy of the query results.

11:00 Discovery of Causal Rules Using Partial Association short_paper) echo(" (Short)");?>
Zhou Jin, Jiuyong Li, Lin Liu, Thuc Duy Le, Bingyu Sun, and Rujing Wang

Discovering causal relationships in large databases of observational data is challenging. The pioneering work in this area was rooted in the theory of Bayesian network (BN) learning, which however, is a NP-complete problem. Hence several constraint-based algorithms have been developed to efficiently discover causations in large databases. These methods usually use the idea of BN learning, directly or indirectly, and are focused on causal relationships with single cause variables. In this paper, we propose an approach to mine causal rules in large databases of binary variables. Our method expands the scope of causality discovery to causal relationships with multiple cause variables, and we utilise partial association tests to exclude noncausal associations, to ensure the high reliability of discovered causal rules. Furthermore an efficient algorithm is designed for the tests in large databases. We assess the method with a set of real-world diagnostic data. The results show that our method can effectively discover interesting causal rules in large databases.

11:20 Outlier Detection in Arbitrarily Oriented Subspaces short_paper) echo(" (Short)");?>
Hans-Peter Kriegel, Peer Kröger, Erich Schubert, and Arthur Zimek

In this paper, we propose a novel outlier detection model to find outliers that deviate from the generating mechanisms of normal instances by considering combinations of different subsets of attributes, as they occur when there are local correlations in the data set. Our model enables to search for outliers in arbitrarily oriented subspaces of the original feature space. We show how in addition to an outlier score, our model also derives an explanation of the outlierness that is useful in investigating the results. Our experiments suggest that our novel method can find different outliers than existing work and can be seen as a complement of those approaches.

11:40 Outlier Ranking via Subspace Analysis in Multiple Views of the Data short_paper) echo(" (Short)");?>
Emmanuel Müller, Ira Assent, Patricia Iglesias, Yvonne Mülle, and Klemens Böhm

Outlier mining is an important task for finding anomalous objects. In practice, however, there is not always a clear distinction between outliers and regular objects as objects have different roles w.r.t. different attribute sets. An object may deviate in one subspace, i.e. a subset of attributes. And the same object might appear perfectly regular in other subspaces. One can think of subspaces as multiple views on one database. Traditional methods consider only one view (the full attribute space). Thus, they miss complex outliers that are hidden in multiple subspaces. In this work, we propose Outrank, a novel outlier ranking concept. Outrank exploits subspace analysis to determine the degree of outlierness. It considers different subsets of the attributes as individual outlier properties. It compares clustered regions in arbitrary subspaces and derives an outlierness score for each object. Its principled integration of multiple views into an outlierness measure uncovers outliers that are not detectable in the full attribute space. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates that Outrank successfully determines a high quality outlier ranking, and outperforms state-of-the-art outlierness measures.